Name _____________________________________             





            The lessons in this program require you to locate many places on a map.

            In this lesson, you will review some of the world’s basic place names and

            the use of the grid system for location.

            You will need a marker and the World map.

1.      On side A of the World desk map, review the shapes and locations of the continents. Then locate the four oceans.

2.      Now turn to side B and use it for items 3-10.

3.      Use a marker to label the seven continents on side B. They can be abbreviated as shown here.

            N.A.    S.A.     EUR.    ASIA   AFR.    AUS.   ANT.

4.      Now label the oceans as follows:

a.       Arctic Ocean : print ARC, north of North America and again north of Europe and Asia.

b.      Atlantic Ocean : print ATL, between the Americans and Africa.

c.       Indian Ocean : print IND, between Africa and Australia.

d.      Pacific Ocean : print PAC, east of Asia and again west of the Americas.

5.      Seas are smaller than oceans and usually are more closed in by nearby land areas.  Label the following seas.

a.       The Mediterranean Sea is almost completely surrounded by Europe, Asia, and Africa. Label it MED.

b.      The Caribbean Sea is between North and South America and a string of islands that separates it from the Atlantic. Label this sea CARIB.

6.      The Equator is a line of latitude, an east-west line that circles the earth. The Equator is halfway between the North and South Poles.

a.       Find the Equator, which is numbered 0on both sides of the map.

Then trace over it with your marker.

b.      Now add the label EQUATOR near the right margin.


7.      The other latitude lines are all parallel to the Equator, and so they are often called parallels.  The numbers on these lines stand for degrees north or south of the Equator. Parallels north of the Equator have north latitude numbers. Those south of the Equator have south latitude numbers. When giving a latitude location, always include both number and direction.

a.       Which of these latitude lines crosses Australia? Circle the answer.

60S                      30N             30S              60N

b.      Which printed line of latitude is closest to the northern edge of South America?

8.      The north-south lines on the map are called lines of longitude, or meridians.  Lines of longitude are numbered east and west of the Prime Meridian, which is numbered 0.

   a.      Trace over the Prime Meridian and label it P.M. in the top margin.

   b.      Meridians east of the Prime Meridian have east longitude numbers.

            Those west of the Prime Meridian have west longitude numbers.

            Which printed longitude line below crosses Australia? Circle the answer.

                        60E              60W                        150W                      150E

9.      You can locate any place on a map by finding the point where particular lines of latitude and longitude cross. Mark an X at each of the following points on the map. Which continent is at each of these points?

a.       15S and 30E                  

b.      45N and 120W              

c.       45N and30E                  

d.       With some practice, you can estimate locations between printed lines of latitude and longitude.

 For example, where would you be if you found yourself at 20N and 75E?


10.  What are the approximate locations (latitude and longitude) of the following places? Find them

 on Side A.

a.       Houston (in the southern United States)

b.      Sydney, Australia

c.       Winnipeg, Canada (near U.S. Border)


12. How is a latitude-longitude map location like the address of a house?


 13. In what kinds of jobs would you find it useful to locate places on a map with latitude and longitude?
































Name _____________________________________             





            Radio and TV news reports, newspapers, magazines, and books often refer to certain parts

            of the world with special names. To understand what is being said, you need to know what

            general areas are being named. You also should be able to find the areas easily on a map.

            This lesson will review some of these terms, most of which you will have heard before.

            Use a marker and side A of the World desk map for the following.


1.      Central America refers to the narrow southern part of North America. It is the part of the continent that links it to South America.

a.   Find Central America, which is the areas between Mexico and Columbia (South America).

b.   How many small countries are in Central America? __________________________________

c.   Draw a line around these countries. Inside the line, print C.A. (for Central America).


2.      The islands in and around the Caribbean Sea often are referred to as the West Indies. Find them on the map.

a.   Which island is the largest in the West Indies?______________________________________

b.   Draw a line around all the islands of the West Indies. Then label the area within the line W.I.


3.      Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and all of South America make up the region called Latin America. Most of the people in Latin America speak either Spanish or Portuguese (“Latin” Languages).

a.   Draw a line around all of Latin America. Then label the area LATIN AMERICA.

   b.      Only two American countries are not part of Latin America. Which two?

            __________________________________   _________________________________________


4.      The United Kingdom and Ireland are island countries separated from the European mainland. But they still are considered part of Europe (as is Iceland, even farther from the mainland). The United Kingdom, Ireland, and some smaller islands near them are often referred to as the British Isles. Label them BRIT IS.


5.      Scandinavia is a region of Northern Europe that includes Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Circle this region and label it SCAND.


6.      A peninsula is a long projection of land into water

a.   Norway and Sweden occupy the Scandinavian Peninsula. In Southern Europe, Spain and

Portugal occupy the Iberian Peninsula. Which two bodies of water almost surround the

Iberian Peninsula?


b.   Label this peninsula IBERIA.

c.   The Arabian Peninsula is separated from Africa by the Red Sea. It is also partly surrounded

      by the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf.

      What is the largest country on this peninsula?_______________________________________

d.   Circle the word Arabia on this peninsula.


7.      A number of terms refer to regions of Africa.

   a.      North Africa, obviously, refers to the northern part of the continent.

            Five North African countries have coastlines on the Mediterranean.

            Name these countries below.


   b.      Print NORTH AFRICA across the northern part of the continent.

   c.      North Africa includes part of the world’s largest desert, the Sahara. (It is not called the

            “Sahara Desert” because the word sahara itself means “desert.”) Look at the map legend to

            see how deserts are shown. Then draw a line along the southern edge of the Sahara.    

   d.      Africa south of the Sahara is referred to as Sub-Saharan, meaning “below, or south of, the

Sahara.” Write SUB-SAHARAN just south of the desert.


8.      Asia is the largest continent and there are a number of terms for its various regions.

a.        Far East is the term for the part of Asia that is farthest from Europe.

Print FAR EAST across eastern China, Korea, and Japan.

b.        Middle East is a term for Northeast Africa and southwest Asia. Egypt and all the Asian

     countries west of Pakistan are included in the region named. (Sometimes the term is used

     to refer to other countries as well.) Print the term MIDDLE EAST across Turkey and Iran.

c.         Southwest Asia includes countries on the southeastern part of the mainland, such as

     Vietnam and Thailand. It also includes island countries like Indonesia and Philippines. Label

     Southeast Asia on the map.

9.      Another way to divide the world into regions is to split it into hemispheres. A hemisphere is half a sphere – in other words, half of the earth.

a.   Trace over the Equator.

b.   You now have a Northern Hemisphere and a Southern Hemisphere.

      Which three continents shown on the main map are completely or mostly in the Southern



c.   Next trace over the Prime Meridian.

d.   Dividing the world through the Prime Meridian splits it into an Eastern Hemisphere and a

      Western Hemisphere. Which two continents are completely in the Western Hemisphere

      (west of the Prime Meridian)?

10.    The names of the regions in this lesson refer to areas that include more than one country.

            Many of the names we use for these regions were given to them when the first modern

            geographers, who were Europeans, remapped the world.

   a.      Why do you think the Europeans gave the name West Indies to the Caribbean Islands?


   b.      They called another region the East Indies. Where would you expect to find the East Indies?


   c.      Not all the names given to regions of the world are based on directions. What other kinds of

names would you expect European geographers and mapmakers to give to regions far

away? (Hint: Think about the names explorers might have used during the time America

was discovered.)

11.       Turn the desk map to side B. How many of the following regions can you label on side B

without checking side A? (Use abbreviations when you need them.)

          West Indies                              Arabia

          Central America                                    Far East

          Scandinavia                              Southeast Asia

          British Isles                               North Africa

          Iberia                                       Sahara

          Middle East                              Sub-Saharan Africa












































Name _____________________________________             




The most recent Ice Age began about 70,000 years ago and ended about 10,000 years ago. During the Ice Age, much of the world was covered by huge, moving mountains of ice called glaciers. In this lesson, you will mark the farthest extent of the Ice Age glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere.

            Use a marker and side A of the World desk map to do the following.

1.      Start by drawing a line to show how far south the glaciers extended in North America. Proceed as follows.

   a.      Mark a small X where the Aleutian Islands meet the western edge of the main map. (The

Aleutians are part of Alaska.)

   b.      Mark another small X at Seattle, near the west coast of the United States.

   c.      Now connect the two Xs with a curving line along the coast of North America.

   d.      Continue with a wavy line southeast to St. Louis and then northeast to New York City.

   e.      From there curve your line northward through the water near the coast all the way to

            75N and 75W.

   f.       Now continue your line to the coast of Greenland and follow the coast counterclockwise to

Ellesmere Island. Then curve your line southwest, just north of the islands, to Prudhoe Bay,


   g.      Trace the edges of Alaska’s mountain ranges from Prudhoe Bay back to your starting place.

2.      Iceland, the smaller island east of Greenland, was completely covered by ice. Draw a circle around Iceland.

3.      Now show how far south the glaciers extended in Europe and Asia. Proceed by first marking small Xs at each of the following points.

a.   The north of edge of Norway

   b.      The southwest edge of Ireland

   c.      Slightly north of London, in the United Kingdom

   d.      Central Poland

   e.      Slightly south of Kharkiv, Ukraine (at 50N and about 36E)

   f.       Where latitude line 60N crosses the continental boundary (white dots)

    g.     Where the lines at 60N and 90E meet

    h.     The Arctic coast of Asia at 120E

4.      Starting at the first X, draw a curving line through all of them in the same order. When you get to the last X, follow the coastline back to the first one.

5.      Glaciers also covered a large part of northeastern Asia.

a.        Find the regions of northeastern Asia labeled East Siberian Uplands and Kamchatka Peninsula. Notice that these regions are colored mainly orange and brown.

b.        Do orange and brown stand for high elevations, or low elevations?______________________

c.         Glaciers covered the high elevations of northeastern Asia. Draw a line around the East Siberian Uplands as far south as as 60N and the high parts of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

6.      Review the areas you have shown to be covered by glaciers during the Ice Age.

a.   Which North American country was once completely covered by glaciers?

   b.      Which four countries on the European mainland were once completely covered by glaciers?

7.      Examine the small map titled Population. Compare it to the areas of the main map that were once covered by glaciers.

a.        A densely populated area is one that has many people. A sparsely populated area has few people. On the small map, do red and maroon indicate regions that are densely or sparsely populated? ____________________________________________________________

b.        Compare the areas once covered by glaciers in Europe and Asia.

Which are now more densely populated, those in Europe or those in Asia?_______________

8. During the Ice Age, much less of the Southern Hemisphere than the Northern Hemisphere

was covered by glaciers. Why do you think this was true? To help you decide, compare the land areas south of 45S with those north of 45N.









































Name _____________________________________             





Several thousand years ago, people to raise animals and grow crops. Farming villages slowly grew into larger towns and then into cities. In this way, civilizations gradually developed. You will locate four of the earliest civilizations in the lesson that follows.

            Use a maker and the Asia desk map.


1.      About 5,000 years ago, an Egyptian kingdom stretched along the Nile River.

a.   Find the Nile River and Egypt in Africa.

b.   Put a dot on the delta of the Nile, where the river breaks up into several streams before

flowing into the Mediterranean Sea.

c.   The kingdom extended from the delta south to the 1st Cataract (or waterfall), Mark a dot

on the 1st Cataract.

   d.      The Egyptian civilization developed close to the river. Show this by drawing a narrow loop

around the Nile and through your two dots. Draw it so that the label for the river is just

inside the circle.

2.      Around the same time, another early civilization arose in the Middle East. It developed in a region called Mesopotamia.

a.   Find Mesopotamia, which is on the opposite side of the Arabian Peninsula from Egypt.

      Name the two rivers that flow through Mesopotamia.


b.      Look at the elevation colors on the map. Is Mesopotamia higher than its surrounding land areas, or lower?


c.   Mesopotamia is a river valley, an area of lower elevation through which one or more rivers flow. (The Nile region you marked is also a river valley, but the elevation difference is slighter there.) Draw a line around the Tigris-Euphrates river valley. Keep the labels for the rivers inside the line.      


3.      A third early civilization began a little later around the Indus River.

a.   Find the Indus River in Pakistan, just west of India.

b.   Draw a line around the label for the Indus River and the dark green of its valley.

      Start and end near the Arabian Sea, near the river’s delta.


4.      A fourth civilization began a few hundred years later, about 4,000 years ago. It arose along the valley of the Wei River and Huang He in China. It is referred to as the civilization of the Yellow River, or Huang He (which is the Chinese name for the Yellow River). The Wei River flows into the Huang He.

a.   Find the Wei River and Huang He in eastern China and underline their labels.

b.   Mark dots on the present-day cities of Xian and Zhengzhou, which are on the rivers.

c.     Now show the extent of the civilization by drawing a narrow loop around the rivers and through the two dots.


5.      Review the locations you marked on the map. Do you remember which is which? Label each civilization with the first letter of its name:

            Egyptian           Mesopotamian              Indus R.                       Huang He


6. The four early civilizations all have one very obvious thing in common. What is it?



7. How does the Huang He region differ from the other three? (Hint: Look for the symbol made up many dots.)



 8. Where do you suppose farmers in the first three regions got water for their crops?



9. In which directions do these rivers mainly flow? (Remember that rivers always flow from high elevations to low elevations.)

      a. Nile R.                            ________________________

    b. Tigris and Euphrates R.   ________________________

   c. Indus R.                             ________________________

d. Huang He                       ________________________



































Name _____________________________________             





Several of the world’s earliest civilizations developed in a region known as the Fertile Crescent. The region was given that name because it is roughly crescent-shaped and its land is fertile. It is one of the few parts of the Middle East that has enough water for farming to be successful.

            Use a marker and the Asia map to do the following.


1.      The Fertile Crescent is between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf. Use the following directions to outline the region on the map.

   a. Mark a small X on the symbol for Jerusalem, Israel, at the southeast end of the Mediterranean.

   b.      Mark another small X on Adana, Turkey, to the north.

   c.      Now look to the east and southeast and mark Xs on Mosul in Iraq and Aradan in Iran.

   d.      Draw a curved line though your Xs.

   e.      Now mark another X in the middle of Syria.

   f.       Draw a line from Jerusalem to the X in Syria. Then complete the crescent with a line that curves along the south side of the Euphrates River to the Persian Gulf.


2.      The Fertile Crescent includes the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. What is this area called?                                    __________________________________________________



3.      From 2,500 to 5,000 years ago, several civilizations rose and fell in the Fertile Crescent. They :d the ancient empires of the following:








Remember that you are working with a map that shows present-day names. Many of the places named on the map had different names in the past. For example, none of the nations named on the map existed at the time of the early civilizations.

            Parts of several present-day nations are within the region that historians call the Fertile Crescent. Name any six of these nations.

4.  Look at the map titled Annual Rainfall.

    a. This map uses color to show how much

rain a region gets in a year.  Which

two colors show the most rain? __________________________________

Which two colors show the least?_________________________________

    b. Outline the Fertile Crescent on the rainfall map.

    c. Would you describe the rainfall in the Fertile Crescent as light, heavy, or in between?


5.  Now return to the main map.  Notice that much of the Fertile Crescent and the surrounding regions are covered with a dot symbol.

a.      What does the dot symbol represent?____________________________________________

b. Where do you suppose people in the crescent got the water they needed to grow crops?


6.      Look at the map titled Land Use.

a. How is the land in the Fertile Crescent used today?

b.      How do you think the land was used several thousand years ago? Why do you think so? _____________________________